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Full text of "Practical Organic Chemistry"

APPENDIX

319

CIUm.CII.OII.ClI.jOII = CII.j:CTI.COII + 2H.,O

Acrolein.

HrjNIL -|- OCIl.CIIiCIIa = C,jIl,N:CH.CH : C1L> + II2O

Acrolcin aniline.

CII
I
CM

IL.O.

N

Quinolinc.

The reaction is a very general one, and most of the primary
aromatic amines and their derivatives can be converted into
quinolinc derivatives, provided that one ortho-position to the
ami no-group is free. 0-Aminophenol, for example, yields
^-hyclroxyquinolinc in the same way,

/\

0-Ainiuophcnol.

\/\/

on N

0-Hydroxyquinoline.

PREPARATION 113.
Quinine Sulphate.—Quinine belongs to the group of
"vegetable bases" or alkaloids. These substances are widely
distributee' among' different orders of plants, and are usually
colourless, odourless, and crystalline solids. A few, however,
are liquids (coninc and nicotine), and possess an unpleasant
smell. There is no general method by which the alkaloids can
be isolated from the plants in which they are found. They
usually exist in combination with acids, such as malic, lactic,
and other common vegetable acids. Frequently the acid present
is peculiar to the plant in which it occurs. Quinine and the
other cinchona alkaloids are found in combination with quinic
arid, morphine with meconic acid, aconitine with aconitic
acid, &c. A common method for separating the alkaloid is to
add an alkali. If the base is volatile in steam, like conine, it
is distilled with water ; if, as generally happens, the substance
is iron-volatile, it is extracted by means of a suitable volatile